Account Base Currency Definition

Investors purchase and sell currencies, this accounts for the reason why currency pairs are indicated as pairs. Investors purchase thinking that the base currency will appreciate compared to the quote currency. In the same vein, this pair can be sold if they think that the base currency will depreciate in value compared to the quote currency. An example of this is when an investor purchases EUR/USD, this simply means that the investor is purchasing euro and selling U.S. dollars simultaneously. Sometimes the term base currency may also refer to the functional currency of a bank or company, usually their domestic currency.

Normally, it is either the domestic currency or the dominant forex currency. Firms dealing in multiple currencies calculate all profits and losses in the base currency. In forex, the base currency is the currency against which exchange rates are generally quoted in a given country, with EUR/USD considered as the most liquid currency pair in the world. When buying a currency pair, investors purchase the base currency and sell the quoted currency. The bid price represents the amount of quote currency needed to receive one unit of the base currency. The base currency is the first currency in a forex pair quotation referred to as the transaction currency.

While they are called minor pairs, some of them are still very popular among many traders like the above-mentioned EUR/GBP, EUR/CHF, GBP/JPY, and many more. In general, those minor pairs that include at least one currency that can also be found in a major pair are usually traded in high volumes. For example, in a EUR/JPY currency pair, euro is the base currency while the Japanese yen is the quote currency. And when someone mentions the price of the currency pair, it means the amount of the second currency necessary to buy the first one. In this case, the price of a EUR/JPY pair is the amount of yen needed to buy one euro. A currency pair is a quotation of two different currencies, where one is quoted against the other.

base currency definition

Quotes against major currencies other than USD are referred to as currency crosses, or simply crosses. The most common crosses are EUR, JPY, and GBP crosses, but may be a major currency crossed with any other currency. The rates are almost universally derived, however, by taking the first currency’s rate against the USD and multiplying/dividing by the second currency’s rate against the USD. The base currency represents how much of the quote currency you will need to get one unit of the base currency.

Stock exchange floor and floor trading

In order to move the trade balance toward surplus , a change in the exchange rate must decrease domestic expenditure relative to income. Equivalently, it must increase domestic saving relative to domestic investment. In this example, the base currency is the euro and the quote currency is the US dollar.

The real exchange rate, defined as the nominal exchange rate multiplied by the ratio of price levels, measures the relative purchasing power of the currencies. An increase in the real exchange lessons in corporate finance rate (Rd/f) implies a reduction in the relative purchasing power of the domestic currency. Individual currencies are usually referred to by standardized three-character codes.

Currencies are traded in fixed contract sizes, specifically called lot sizes, or multiples thereof. Many retail trading firms also offer 10,000-unit trading accounts and a few even 1,000-unit . If you direct GCMT to fund Margin from funds denominated in a currency other than the Account Base Currency, GCMT will be authorized to convert those funds for Margin at a rate of exchange reasonably determined by GCMT. In EUR/USD, the base currency is the currency on the left, which is EUR, while the other currency on the right, USD, is called the quote currency.

base currency definition

Definition and synonyms of base currency from the online English dictionary from Macmillan Education. Therefore each trade is counted twice, once under the sold currency ($) and once under the bought currency (€). The percentages above are the percent of trades involving that currency regardless of whether it is bought or sold, e.g. the U.S. Dollar is bought or sold in 88% of all trades, whereas the Euro is bought or sold 32% of the time. Other2.2%Total200.0%The rules for formulating standard currency pair notations result from accepted priorities attributed to each currency.

A quote currency, commonly known as “counter currency,” is the second currency in both a direct and indirect currency pair. A pip is the smallest price increment tabulated by currency markets to establish the price of a currency pair. The table below shows the exchange rate versus the U.S. dollar by country for the last five years. If there is excess capacity in the economy, then currency depreciation can increase output/income by switching demand toward domestically produced goods and services. Because some of the additional income will be saved, income rises relative to expenditure and the trade balance improves. The elasticities approach leads to the Marshall–Lerner condition, which describes combinations of export and import demand elasticities such that depreciation of the domestic currency will move the trade balance toward surplus .

Pairs that involve the euro are often called euro crosses, such as EUR/GBP. In short, when you buy a currency pair, you buy the base currency and sell the quote currency. On the other hand, when you sell a currency pair, this means you sell the base currency and receive the quote currency in return. Forex stands for “foreign exchange” and refers to the buying or selling of one currency in exchange for… If you open a long position, you would do so in the expectation that the base currency will rise, or that the quote currency will fall. So, if you thought that the US dollar was going to fall in value, or that the euro was going to rise, you would buy EUR/USD.

Empirical studies suggest that forward exchange rates may be unbiased predictors of future spot rates, but the margin of error on such forecasts is too large for them to be used in practice as a guide to managing exchange rate exposures. FX markets are too complex and too intertwined with other global financial markets to be adequately characterized by a single variable, such as the interest rate differential. This reading introduces the foreign exchange market, providing the basic concepts and terminology necessary to understand exchange rates as well as some of the basics of exchange rate economics.

In forex, the base currency represents how much of the quote currency is needed for you to get one unit of the base currency. For example, if you were looking at the CAD/USD currency pair, the Canadian dollar would be the base currency and the U.S. dollar would be the quote currency. A trade surplus reflects an excess of domestic saving over investment spending. A trade deficit indicates that the country invests more than it saves and must finance the excess by borrowing from foreigners or selling assets to foreigners. There is a wide diversity of global FX market participants that have a wide variety of motives for entering into foreign exchange transactions.


Your request has been identified as part of a network of automated tools outside of the acceptable policy and will be managed until action is taken to declare your traffic. Foreign Currency Letter of Credit means a Letter of Credit denominated in a Foreign Currency. Quote Currency means the second currency in the Currency Pair which can be bought or sold by the Client for the Base Currency. Base Currency means the first currency in the Currency Pair against which the Client buys or sells the Quote Currency. Base Currencymeans the currency of account of a Fund as specified in the relevant Supplement relating to that Fund. Base Currencymeans the first currency in the Currency Pair against which the Client buys or sells the Quote Currency.

From this you can see how much you have to pay of the quote currency to be able to buy the base currency . Currency pairs are the most important elements of Forex trading because they are used as assets for the actual trading process. People buy and sell base currency quote currency combinations to generate payouts. In currency pair Forex quotes, the first currency is called the base currency, while the second one is called the quote currency. They represent how much you need to spend to buy a base currency vs quote currency.

base currency definition

Thus, if you buy the currency pair EUR/USD for example, it’s because you believe the euro is going to rise in value while the US dollar will fall. Currencies from developing or emerging market economies that are paired with a major currency are called exotic currency pairs. These pairings are known to be more illiquid and come with wider spreads; thus, making them riskier.

Financial Contract Definitions

Designated LIBOR Currency means the currency specified on the face hereof as to which LIBOR shall be calculated or, if no such currency is specified on the face hereof, United States dollars. If any interest costs, commission and other charges to be debited to your Account are in a Currency other than the Account Base Currency they may be converted to that Account Base Currency at the prevailing conversion rate as designated by us. Cost of carry, also known as carrying charges, refers to the costs that a trader or investor has to spend in order to maintain a position in the market. For the purposes of any calculation hereunder, we may convert amounts denominated in any other currency into the Base Currency at such rate prevailing at the time of the calculation as we shall reasonably select. Just as a base currency drives out of circulation a pure currency, so does a lower standard of comfort drive out a higher one.

The most traded pairs of currencies in the world are called the Majors. They constitute the largest share of the foreign exchange market, about 85%, and therefore they exhibit high market liquidity. They involve the currencies euro, US dollar, Japanese yen, pound sterling, Australian dollar, Canadian dollar, and the Swiss franc.

Understanding Currency Pairs

For example, in a pair of CAD/USD, the Canadian dollar is the base currency while USD is the quote currency. As exemplified above, currency pairs use codes to indicate a specific currency. These three-letter codes are created indices trading strategies and enforced by the International Organization for Standardization with provisions in ISO 4217. These codes in a currency pair can be marked differently by using a slash or replaced with a period, a dash or nothing.

International trade would be impossible without the trade in currencies that facilitates it, and so too would cross-border capital flows that connect all financial markets globally through the FX market. Forex quotations are stated as pairs because investors simultaneously buy and sell currencies. For example, when a buyer purchases EUR/USD, it basically means that he is buying euro and selling U.S. dollars at the same time. Investors buy the pair if they think that the base currency will gain value in contrast with the quote currency. On the other hand, they sell the pair if they think that the base currency will lose value in contrast with the quote currency. The impact of the exchange rate on trade and capital flows can be analyzed from two perspectives.

A currency pair is a combination of two separate currencies with FX quotes and it represents the price difference between them. There are minor Forex pairs, which are also called currency cross pairs. They are the pairs that don’t include the US dollar and have other currencies instead. For example, the EUR/GBP, EUR/JPY, and others are all considered minor pairs.

The elasticities approach focuses on the effect of changing the relative price of domestic and foreign goods. The absorption approach focuses on the impact of exchange rates on aggregate expenditure/saving decisions. etoro Given exchange rates for two currency pairs—A/B and A/C—we can compute the cross-rate (B/C) between currencies B and C. Depending on how the rates are quoted, this may require inversion of one of the quoted rates.

Is gold a currency or money?

Gold Is a Currency

However, it is highly liquid and can be converted to cash in almost any currency with relative ease. It follows that gold acts like other currencies in many ways. There are times when gold is likely to move higher and times when other currencies or asset classes usually outperform.

The base currency is said to be trading at a forward premium if the forward rate is above the spot rate . Conversely, the base currency is said to be trading at a forward discount if the forward rate is below the spot rate . The base currency is the first currency listed and shows the amount of the quote currency required to purchase one unit of the base currency. It’s the first currency before the slash, while the second one is called the quote currency. And when someone says they want to buy a Forex pair, they want to buy the base currency using the quote currency.

Definition and Examples of Base Currency

This may seem like a large minimum investment , but currency trading can have margin factors as low as 2% depending on the currency pair. That means if you trade one lot with dollars as the base currency, you only need $2,000 in the account to control $100,000 in the trade. The market maker earns the spread, or difference between the two prices. Currency pairs are used because you are always selling one currency and buying the other. In a currency trade—assuming it is an investment or speculation and not being done for a simple transaction—when you take a long position, you are betting that the base currency will go up in terms of the counter currency.

Alongside forex major and minor pairs are the combination of pairs known as “exotic pairs”. These pairs involve a major currency – like USD, EUR, GBP, or the JPY – alongside a thinly-traded currency that holds minimal trading volume within the foreign exchange market. Such pairs include EUR/TKY, USD/SGD, USD/HKD, and GBP/SEK, to name a few. Since trading volume is less present within these pairs, there’s a lack of market depth, leading to wider spreads.

A base currency is the first currency that appears in a forex pair quotation. In the foreign exchange market, one currency will always be quoted in relation to another because you are buying one while selling the other. Base currency, also called the transaction currency, refers to the first currency that appears in a currency pair quotation. Certain traded assets like forex and cryptocurrencies are quoted in currency pairs because you are buying one asset while selling the other.

The Egyptian pound plunged against the U.S. dollar in recent weeks, falling to its lowest level since 3 February 2017 and trading at 18.54 on 22 March. Liquidity is the ability to sell and buy something as quickly as possible. Some things are more liquid – can be easily bought or sold, while others are less liquid – it’s more difficult to sell/buy them. DisclaimerAll content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Free Financial Modeling Guide A Complete Guide to Financial Modeling This resource is designed to be the best free guide to financial modeling!

An investor must therefore weigh up as precisely as possible how the currencies of a pair correlate with each other, i.e. how they relate to each other. Depending on which currency is considered the “strong” one and which the “weak” one, so-called ” long” or “short” positions are opened. In technical language, this process is called “going long” or “going short”. For example, in the EUR/USD currency pair, the US dollar is the quote currency which shows how much US dollars is necessary to buy one euro. When traders say they want to buy a EUR/USD currency pair , they actually want to sell their dollars and buy euros with that. A pair is depicted only one way and never reversed for the purpose of a trade, but a buy or sell function is used at initiation of a trade.

base currency ​Definitions and Synonyms

If the price of the EUR/USD pair is 1.5000, this means you need $1.50 to buy a single euro. If you buy a currency pair, you buy the base currency and sell the quote currency. The base currency is also considered to be the currency used by a business entity to report its financial statements.

Thus, if a U.S. company has a Japanese subsidiary, it must first convert the financial results of the subsidiary into dollars, and then consolidate the results with those of the parent company, which are stated in the base currency. The base currency, which is also known as the transaction currency, is the first currency appearing in a currency pair quotation. If the price of the EUR/USD pair is 1.3000, it means that you would need $1.30 to buy a single euro.

We’re also a community of traders that support each other on our daily trading journey. Find the approximate amount of currency units to buy or sell so you can control your maximum risk per position. ISO currency codes are three-letter alphabetic codes that represent the various currencies used globally. This is the British English definition of base currency.View American English definition of base currency. The spread offered to a retail customer with an account at a brokerage firm, rather than a large international forex market maker, is larger and varies between brokerages. Brokerages typically increase the spread they receive from their market providers as compensation for their service to the end customer, rather than charge a transaction fee.